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 Australia General facts

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СтворюватиТема: Australia General facts   Чт Лют 22, 2018 10:18 am

Australia is a large country lying between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Australia is an island, like Britain, but unlike Britain, it is vast. It is, in fact, nearly twenty-five times as large as the British Isles. Its area is about 8,000,000 square km. The population of Australia is about 24 mln. Most of Australia is semi-desert. People cannot live where there is no water, and so most of people in Australia live in the richer south-east. The first Australian people were dark-skinned Aborigines, and though the coming of the white settlers destroyed their tribal lives, some sixty thousand still survive in Australia today. Their account for about 1 percent of the population. They may be found in the island areas of the country. Some live in modern cities but it is not really easy for them. They have to fight for their rights.
The first Europeans to land in this country were Dutch sailors. The national holiday, Australia Day, is now celebrated on or near January 26th in memory of landing of the British in 1788. The young country grew very fast. Today Australia is an independent federative state consisting of 6 states and 2 territories. It is a member of the Commonwealth headed by the British Queen. The national language is English. The capital of Australia is Canberra; the largest cities are Sidney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth.
Australia, or the Commonwealth of Australia, as it is officially called, is situated on the island continent. It also occupies the Island of Tasmania and some minor islands round the coast of the continent.

It is a highly developed industrial-agrarian country. It is the only state in the world that occupies the territory of a whole continent.

The capital of Australia is Canberra, which became the capital only in 1927.

From 1787 to 1867 Australia was a place where criminals were sent from Britain. That is why the official language of Australia is English.

Almost one half of Australian territory is occupied by deserts and semideserts. For quite a long period of time it was thought to be useless for economic development. But it is rich in coal, iron ore, bauxites, uranium, lead and many other mineral resources.

For almost a century the production and export of sheep wool was the basis of the economy of the country. Now the most important industries are oil, chemical, ore mining, radioelectronics, and food industry. The country exports agricultural products and raw materials.
As for the nature, the commonest trees of Australia are the eucalyptus and the Australian acacia or mimosa, the national emblem of the country. Such unusual animals as a kangaroo or a koala-bear originate from Australia.

Australia is one of the most unusual and exotic countries of the world. A significant feature of modern Australian society is the representation of a lot of cultures drawn from many lands by its people.

Historically part of the British Empire and now a member of a Commonwealth of Nations, it is a relatively prosperous and independent nation.
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